Category Archives: Chromium

Working on the Chromium Servicification Project

Published / by mario / Leave a Comment

Igalia & ChromiumIt’s been a few months already since I (re)joined Igalia as part of its Chromium team and I couldn’t be happier about it: right since the very first day, I felt perfectly integrated as part of the team that I’d be part of and quickly started making my way through the -fully upstream- project that would keep me busy during the following months: the Chromium Servicification Project.

But what is this “Chromium servicification project“? Well, according to the Wiktionary the word “servicification” means, applied to computing, “the migration from monolithic legacy applications to service-based components and solutions”, which is exactly what this project is about: as described in the Chromium servicification project’s website, the whole purpose behind this idea is “to migrate the code base to a more modular, service-oriented architecture”, in order to “produce reusable and decoupled components while also reducing duplication”.

Doing so would not only make Chromium a more manageable project from a source code-related point of view and create better and more stable interfaces to embed chromium from different projects, but should also enable teams to experiment with new features by combining these services in different ways, as well as to ship different products based in Chromium without having to bundle the whole world just to provide a particular set of features. 

For instance, as Camille Lamy put it in the talk delivered (slides here) during the latest Web Engines Hackfest,  “it might be interesting long term that the user only downloads the bits of the app they need so, for instance, if you have a very low-end phone, support for VR is probably not very useful for you”. This is of course not the current status of things yet (right now everything is bundled into a big executable), but it’s still a good way to visualise where this idea of moving to a services-oriented architecture should take us in the long run.

Chromium Servicification Layers

With this in mind, the idea behind this project would be to work on the migration of the different parts of Chromium depending on those components that are being converted into services, which would be part of a “foundation” base layer providing the core services that any application, framework or runtime build on top of chromium would need.

As you can imagine, the whole idea of refactoring such an enormous code base like Chromium’s is daunting and a lot of work, especially considering that currently ongoing efforts can’t simply be stopped just to perform this migration, and that is where our focus is currently aimed at: we integrate with different teams from the Chromium project working on the migration of those components into services, and we make sure that the clients of their old APIs move away from them and use the new services’ APIs instead, while keeping everything running normally in the meantime.

At the beginning, we started working on the migration to the Network Service (which allows to run Chromium’s network stack even without a browser) and managed to get it shipped in Chromium Beta by early October already, which was a pretty big deal as far as I understand. In my particular case, that stage was a very short ride since such migration was nearly done by the time I joined Igalia, but still something worth mentioning due to the impact it had in the project, for extra context.

After that, our team started working on the migration of the Identity service, where the main idea is to encapsulate the functionality of accessing the user’s identities right through this service, so that one day this logic can be run outside of the browser process. One interesting bit about this migration is that this particular functionality (largely implemented inside the sign-in component) has historically been located quite high up in the stack, and yet it’s now being pushed all the way down into that “foundation” base layer, as a core service. That’s probably one of the factors contributing to making this migration quite complicated, but everyone involved is being very dedicated and has been very helpful so far, so I’m confident we’ll get there in a reasonable time frame.

If you’re curious enough, though, you can check this status report for the Identity service, where you can see the evolution of this particular migration, along with the impact our team had since we started working on this part, back on early October. There are more reports and more information in the mailing list for the Identity service, so feel free to check it out and/or subscribe there if you like.

One clarification is needed, tough: for now, the scope of this migrations is focused on using the public C++ APIs that such services expose (see //services/<service_name>/public/cpp), but in the long run the idea is that those services will also provide Mojo interfaces. That will enable using their functionality regardless of whether you’re running those services as part of the browser’s process, or inside their own & separate processes, which will then allow the flexibility that chromium will need to run smoothly and safely in different kind of environments, from the least constrained ones to others with a less favourable set of resources at their disposal.

And this is it for now, I think. I was really looking forward to writing a status update about what I’ve been up to in the past months and here it is, even though it’s not the shortest of all reports.

FOSDEM 2019

One last thing, though: as usual, I’m going to FOSDEM this year as well, along with a bunch of colleagues & friends from Igalia, so please feel free to drop me/us a line if you want to chat and/or hangout, either to talk about work-related matters or anything else really.

And, of course, I’d be also more than happy to talk about any of the open job positions at Igalia, should you consider applying. There are quite a few of them available at the moment for all kind of things (most of them available for remote work): from more technical roles such as graphicscompilersmultimedia, JavaScript engines, browsers (WebKitChromium, Web Platform) or systems administration (this one not available for remotes, though), to other less “hands-on” types of roles like developer advocatesales engineer or project manager, so it’s possible there’s something interesting for you if you’re considering to join such an special company like this one.

See you in FOSDEM!

Chromium Browser on xdg-app

Published / by mario / 7 Comments on Chromium Browser on xdg-app

Last week I had the chance to attend for 3 days the GNOME Software Hackfest, organized by Richard Hughes and hosted at the brand new Red Hat’s London office.

And besides meeting new people and some old friends (which I admit to be one of my favourite aspects about attending these kind of events), and discovering what it’s now my new favourite place for fast-food near London bridge, I happened to learn quite a few new things while working on my particular personal quest: getting Chromium browser to run as an xdg-app.

While this might not seem to be an immediate need for Endless right now (we currently ship a Chromium-based browser as part of our OSTree based system), this was definitely something worth exploring as we are now implementing the next version of our App Center (which will be based on GNOME Software and xdg-app). Chromium updates very frequently with fixes and new features, and so being able to update it separately and more quickly than the OS is very valuable.

Endless OS App Center
Screenshot of Endless OS’s current App Center

So, while Joaquim and Rob were working on the GNOME Software related bits and discussing aspects related to Continuous Integration with the rest of the crowd, I spent some time learning about xdg-app and trying to get Chromium to build that way which, unsurprisingly, was not an easy task.

Fortunately, the base documentation about xdg-app together with Alex Larsson’s blog post series about this topic (which I wholeheartedly recommend reading) and some experimentation from my side was enough to get started with the whole thing, and I was quickly on my way to fixing build issues, adding missing deps and the like.

Note that my goal at this time was not to get a fully featured Chromium browser running, but to get something running based on the version that we use use in Endless (Chromium 48.0.2564.82), with a couple of things disabled for now (e.g. chromium’s own sandbox, udev integration…) and putting, of course, some holes in the xdg-app configuration so that Chromium can access the system’s parts that are needed for it to function (e.g. network, X11, shared memory, pulseaudio…).

Of course, the long term goal is to close as many of those holes as possible using Portals instead, as well as not giving up on Chromium’s own sandbox right away (some work will be needed here, since `setuid` binaries are a no-go in xdg-app’s world), but for the time being I’m pretty satisfied (and kind of surprised, even) that I managed to get the whole beast built and running after 4 days of work since I started :-).

But, as Alberto usually says… “screencast or it didn’t happen!”, so I recorded a video yesterday to properly share my excitement with the world. Here you have it:


[VIDEO: Chromium Browser running as an xdg-app]

As mentioned above, this is work-in-progress stuff, so please hold your horses and manage your expectations wisely. It’s not quite there yet in terms of what I’d like to see, but definitely a step forward in the right direction, and something I hope will be useful not only for us, but for the entire Linux community as a whole. Should you were curious about the current status of the whole thing, feel free to check the relevant files at its git repository here.

Last, I would like to finish this blog post saying thanks specially to Richard Hughes for organizing this event, as well as the GNOME Foundation and Red Hat for their support in the development of GNOME Software and xdg-app. Finally, I’d also like to thank my employer Endless for supporting me to attend this hackfest. It’s been a terrific week indeed… thank you all!

Credit to Georges Stavracas

Credit to Georges Stavracas

Importing include paths in Eclipse

Published / by mario / 1 Comment on Importing include paths in Eclipse

First of all, let me be clear: no, I’m not trying to leave Emacs again, already got over that stage. Emacs is and will be my main editor for the foreseeable future, as it’s clear to me that there’s no other editor I feel more comfortable with, which is why I spent some time cleaning up my .emacs.d and making it more “manageable”.

But as much as like Emacs as my main “weapon”, I sometimes appreciate the advantages of using a different kind of beast for specific purposes. And, believe me or not, in the past 2 years I learned to love Eclipse/CDT as the best work-mate I know when I need some extra help to get deep inside of the two monster C++ projects that WebKit and Chromium are. And yes, I know Eclipse is resource hungry, slow, bloated… and whatnot; but I’m lucky enough to have fast SSDs and lots of RAM in my laptop & desktop machines, so that’s not really a big concern anymore for me (even though I reckon that indexing chromium in the laptop takes “quite some time”), so let’s move on 🙂

However, there’s this one little thing that still bothers quite me a lot of Eclipse: you need to manually setup the include paths for the external dependencies not in a standard location that a C/C++ project uses, so that you can get certain features properly working such as code auto-completion, automatic error-checking features, call hierarchies… and so forth.

And yes, I know there is an Eclipse plugin adding support for pkg-config which should do the job quite well. But for some reason I can’t get it to work with Eclipse Mars, even though others apparently can use it there for some reason (and I remember using it with Eclipse Juno, so it’s definitely not a myth).

Anyway, I did not feel like fighting with that (broken?) plugin, and in the other hand I was actually quite inclined to play a bit with Python so… my quick and dirty solution to get over this problem was to write a small script that takes a list of package names (as you would pass them to pkg-config) and generates the XML content that you can use to import in Eclipse. And surprisingly, that worked quite well for me, so I’m sharing it here in case someone else finds it useful.

Using frogr as an example, I generate the XML file for Eclipse doing this:

  $ pkg-config-to-eclipse glib-2.0 libsoup-2.4 libexif libxml-2.0 \
        json-glib-1.0 gtk+-3.0 gstreamer-1.0 > frogr-eclipse.xml

…and then I simply import frogr-eclipse.xml from the project’s properties, inside the C/C++ General > Paths and Symbols section.

After doing that I get rid of all the brokenness caused by so many missing symbols and header files, I get code auto-completion nicely working back again and all those perks you would expect from this little big IDE. And all that without having to go through the pain of defining all of them one by one from the settings dialog, thank goodness!

Now you can quickly see how it works in the video below:


VIDEO: Setting up a C/C++ project in Eclipse with pkg-config-to-eclipse

This has been very helpful for me, hope it will be helpful to someone else too!